The "empty" landscapes build on work begun in the Canada series (2003) and the Inward Heart series (2002). The form of a landscape (or seascape) is preserved by the elements of source light and reflected light, separated by a horizon line. Few additional references are explicitly given, freeing the viewer to experience the vastness of the natural world without unnecessary direction by the artist. This, I believe, creates a visual sensation more closely approximating the experience of viewing the real world, in which elements outside the viewer's field of view are implicit. Perhaps this can lead the viewer into the contemplative or reverential emotions that we feel in the presence of nature's inherent divinity.